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C/C++ Aptitude Questions and Answers



What is class invariant?
A class invariant is a condition that defines all valid states for an object. It is a logical condition to ensure the correct working of a class. Class invariants must hold when an object is created, and they must be preserved under all operations of the class. In particular all class invariants are both preconditions and post-conditions for all operations or member functions of the class.

What do you mean by Stack unwinding?
It is a process during exception handling when the destructor is called for all local objects between the place where the exception was thrown and where it is caught.

Define precondition and post-condition to a member function.
Precondition:
            A precondition is a condition that must be true on entry to a member function. A class is used correctly if preconditions are never false. An operation is not responsible for doing anything sensible if its precondition fails to hold.
For example, the interface invariants of stack class say nothing about pushing yet another element on a stack that is already full. We say that isful() is a precondition of the push operation.
 
Post-condition:
            A post-condition is a condition that must be true on exit from a member function if the precondition was valid on entry to that function. A class is implemented correctly if post-conditions are never false.
For example, after pushing an element on the stack, we know that isempty() must necessarily hold. This is a post-condition of the push operation.

What are the conditions that have to be met for a condition to be an invariant of the class?
  The condition should hold at the end of every constructor.
  The condition should hold at the end of every mutator(non-const) operation.

What are proxy objects?
Objects that stand for other objects are called proxy objects or surrogates.
Example:
                  template
                  class Array2D
                  {
                         public:
                              class Array1D
                               {
                                     public:
                                 T& operator[] (int index);
                                 const T& operator[] (int index) const;
                                 ...
                               };
                              Array1D operator[] (int index);
                              const Array1D operator[] (int index) const;
                              ...
                   };
      
            The following then becomes legal:
                   Array2Ddata(10,20);
               ........
               cout< 
            Here data[3] yields an Array1D object and the operator [] invocation on that object yields the float in position(3,6) of the original two dimensional array. Clients of the Array2D class need not be aware of the presence of the Array1D class. Objects of this latter class stand for one-dimensional array objects that, conceptually, do not exist for clients of Array2D. Such clients program as if they were using real, live, two-dimensional arrays. Each Array1D object stands for a one-dimensional array that is absent from a conceptual model used by the clients of Array2D. In the above example, Array1D is a proxy class. Its instances stand for one-dimensional arrays that, conceptually, do not exist.

Name some pure object oriented languages.
    Smalltalk,
    Java,
    Eiffel, 
    Sather.

Name the operators that cannot be overloaded.
sizeof   .          .*         .->        ::          ?:                     

What is a node class?
A node class is a class that,
  relies on the base class for services and implementation,
  provides a wider interface to te users than its base class,
  relies primarily on virtual functions in its public interface
  depends on all its direct and indirect base class
  can be understood only in the context of the base class
  can be used as base for further derivation
  can be used to create objects.
A node class is a class that has added new services or functionality beyond the services inherited from its base class.   

What is an orthogonal base class?
If two base classes have no overlapping methods or data they are said to be independent of, or orthogonal to each other. Orthogonal in the sense means that two classes operate in different dimensions and do not interfere with each other in any way. The same derived class may inherit such classes with no difficulty.

What is a container class? What are the types of container classes?
A container class is a class that is used to hold objects in memory or external storage. A container class acts as a generic holder. A container class has a predefined behavior and a well-known interface. A container class is a supporting class whose purpose is to hide the topology used for maintaining the list of objects in memory. When a container class contains a group of mixed objects, the container is called a heterogeneous container; when the container is holding a group of objects that are all the same, the container is called a homogeneous container.

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