What is an opaque pointer?
A pointer is said to be opaque if the definition of the type to which it points
to is not included in the current translation unit. A translation unit is the
result of merging an implementation file with all its headers and header files.
What is a smart pointer?
A smart pointer is an object that acts, looks and feels like a normal pointer
but offers more functionality. In C++, smart pointers are implemented as
template classes that encapsulate a pointer and override standard pointer
operators. They have a number of advantages over regular pointers. They are
guaranteed to be initialized as either null pointers or pointers to a heap
object. Indirection through a null pointer is checked. No delete is ever
necessary. Objects are automatically freed when the last pointer to them has
gone away. One significant problem with these smart pointers is that unlike
regular pointers, they don't respect inheritance. Smart pointers are
unattractive for polymorphic code. Given below is an example for the
implementation of smart pointers.
// makes a null pointer
smart_pointer(const X& x)
// makes pointer to copy of x
X& operator *( );
const X& operator*( ) const;
X* operator->() const;
const smart_pointer & operator
This class implement a smart pointer to an object of type X. The object itself
is located on the heap. Here is how to use it:
Like other overloaded operators, p will behave like a regular pointer,
What is reflexive association?
The 'is-a' is called a reflexive association because the reflexive association
permits classes to bear the is-a association not only with their super-classes
but also with themselves. It differs from a 'specializes-from' as
'specializes-from' is usually used to describe the association between a
super-class and a sub-class. For example:
Printer is-a printer.
What is slicing?
Slicing means that the data added by a subclass are discarded when an object of
the subclass is passed or returned by value or from a function expecting a base
Consider the following class declaration:
base& operator =(const base&);
base (const base&);
void fun( )
As base copy functions don't know anything about the derived only the base part
of the derived is copied. This is commonly referred to as slicing. One reason to
pass objects of classes in a hierarchy is to avoid slicing. Other reasons are to
preserve polymorphic behavior and to gain efficiency.
What is name mangling?
Name mangling is the process through which your c++ compilers give each function
in your program a unique name. In C++, all programs have at-least a few
functions with the same name. Name mangling is a concession to the fact that
linker always insists on all function names being unique.
member names are made unique by concatenating the name of the member with that
of the class e.g. given the declaration:
ival becomes something like:
// a possible member name mangling
Consider this derivation:
class Foo : public Bar
The internal representation of a Foo object is the concatenation of its base and
derived class members.
// Pseudo C++ code
// Internal representation of Foo
Unambiguous access of either ival members is achieved through name mangling.
Member functions, because they can be overloaded, require an extensive mangling
to provide each with a unique name. Here the compiler generates the same name
for the two overloaded instances(Their argument lists make their instances
What are proxy objects?
Objects that points to other objects are called proxy objects or surrogates. Its
an object that provides the same interface as its server object but does not
have any functionality. During a method invocation, it routes data to the true
server object and sends back the return value to the object.
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