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C++ Interview Questions and Answers



What is RTTI?
Runtime type identification (RTTI) lets you find the dynamic type of an object when you have only a pointer or a reference to the base type. RTTI is the official way in standard C++ to discover the type of an object and to convert the type of a pointer or reference (that is, dynamic typing). The need came from practical experience with C++. RTTI replaces many Interview Questions - Homegrown versions with a solid, consistent approach.

What is encapsulation?
Packaging an objectís variables within its methods is called encapsulation.

Explain term POLIMORPHISM and give an example using eg. SHAPE object: If I have a base class SHAPE, how would I define DRAW methods for two objects CIRCLE and SQUARE

Answer1
POLYMORPHISM : A phenomenon which enables an object to react differently to the same function call.
in C++ it is attained by using a keyword virtual

Example
public class SHAPE
{
public virtual void SHAPE::DRAW()=0;
}
Note here the function DRAW() is pure virtual which means the sub classes must implement the DRAW() method and SHAPE cannot be instatiated

public class CIRCLE::public SHAPE
{
public void CIRCLE::DRAW()
{
// TODO drawing circle
}
}
public class SQUARE::public SHAPE
{
public void SQUARE::DRAW()
{
// TODO drawing square
}
}
now from the user class the calls would be like
globally
SHAPE *newShape;

When user action is to draw
public void MENU::OnClickDrawCircle(){
newShape = new CIRCLE();
}

public void MENU::OnClickDrawCircle(){
newShape = new SQUARE();

}

the when user actually draws
public void CANVAS::OnMouseOperations(){
newShape->DRAW();
}


Answer2
class SHAPE{
public virtual Draw() = 0; //abstract class with a pure virtual method
};

class CIRCLE{
public int r;
public virtual Draw() { this->drawCircle(0,0,r); }
};

class SQURE
public int a;
public virtual Draw() { this->drawRectangular(0,0,a,a); }
};

Each object is driven down from SHAPE implementing Draw() function in its own way.

What is an object?
Object is a software bundle of variables and related methods. Objects have state and behavior.

How can you tell what shell you are running on UNIX system?
You can do the Echo $RANDOM. It will return a undefined variable if you are from the C-Shell, just a return prompt if you are from the Bourne shell, and a 5 digit random numbers if you are from the Korn shell. You could also do a ps -l and look for the shell with the highest PID.

What do you mean by inheritance?
Inheritance is the process of creating new classes, called derived classes, from existing classes or base classes. The derived class inherits all the capabilities of the base class, but can add embellishments and refinements of its own.

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Check Object Oriented Interview Questions for more Object Oriented Interview Questions with answers

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