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CSS Interview Questions and Answers



How do I combine multiple sheets into one?
To combine multiple/partial style sheets into one set the TITLE attribute taking one and the same value to the LINK element. The combined style will apply as a preferred style, e.g.:

<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="default.css" TITLE="combined">
<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="fonts.css" TITLE="combined">
<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="tables.css" TITLE="combined">

What is attribute selector?
Attribute selector is a selector defined by 1) the attribute set to element(s), 2) the attribute and value(s), 3) the attribute and value parts:

1a) A[title] {text-decoration: underline}
All A elements containing the TITLE attribute will be underlined

1b) A[class=name] {text-decoration: underline}
The A elements classed as 'name' will be underlined

2) A[title="attribute element"] {text-decoration: underline}
The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value that is an exact match of the specified value, which in this example is 'attribute element', will be underlined

3) A[title~="attribute"] {text-decoration: underline}
The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value containing the specified word, which in this example is 'attribute', will be underlined

What is parent-child selector?
Parent-child selector is a selector representing the direct descendent of a parent element. Parent-child selectors are created by listing two or more tilde (~) separated selectors.

BODY ~ P {background: red; color: white}
The P element will be declared the specified style only if it directly descends from the BODY element:
<BODY> <P>Red and white paragraph </P> </BODY>

BODY ~ P ~ EM {background: red; color: white}
The EM element will be declared the specified style only if it directly descends from the P element which in its turn directly descends from the BODY element:

< <P> <EM>Red and white EM </EM> </P> </BODY>

How can I specify background images?
With CSS, you can suggest a background image (and a background color, for those not using your image) with the background property. Here is an example:

body {
background: white url(example.gif) ;
color: black ;
}
If you specify a background image, you should also specify text, link, and background colors since the reader's default colors may not provide adequate contrast against your background image. The background color may be used by those not using your background image. Authors should not rely on the specified background image since browsers allow their users to disable image loading or to override document-specified backgrounds.

How do I have a fixed (non-scrolling) background image?
With CSS, you can use the background-attachment property. The background attachment can be included in the shorthand background property, as in this example:

body {
background: white url(example.gif) fixed ;
color: black ;
}

Note that this CSS is supported by Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Firefox Opera, Safari, and other browsers. In contrast, Microsoft's proprietary BGPROPERTIES attribute is supported only by Internet Explorer.

What are inline, block, parent, children, replaced and floating elements?
Inline
elements which do not have line breaks. Can occur in block elements or other inline elements, cannot contain block elements.
Inline elements in HTML 3.2; EM, STRONG, DFN, CODE, SAMP, KBD, VAR, CITE, TT, I, B, U, STRIKE, BIG, SMALL, SUB, SUP, A, IMG, APPLET, FONT, BASEFONT, BR, SCRIPT, MAP, INPUT, SELECT, TEXTAREA.

Inline elements in HTML 4.0; EM, STRONG, DFN, CODE, SAMP, KBD, VAR, CITE, ABBR, ACRONYM, TT, I, B, BIG, SMALL, SUB, SUP, A, IMG, OBJECT, BR, SCRIPT, MAP, Q, SPAN, BDO, INPUT, SELECT, TEXTAREA, LABEL, BUTTON, (INS, DEL).

Inline elements in HTML 4.0 Transitional; EM, STRONG, DFN, CODE, SAMP, KBD, VAR, CITE, ABBR, ACRONYM, TT, I, B, U, S, STRIKE, BIG, SMALL, SUB, SUP, A, IMG, APPLET, OBJECT, FONT, BASEFONT, BR, SCRIPT, MAP, Q, SPAN, BDO, IFRAME, INPUT, SELECT, TEXTAREA, LABEL, BUTTON, (INS, DEL).

Block
elements which do have line breaks. May occur in other block elements, cannot occur in inline elements, may contain both block and inline elements.

Block elements in HTML 3.2; H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, ADDRESS, P, DL, DT, DD, UL, OL, DIR, MENU, LI, DIV, CENTER, BLOCKQUOTE, PRE, HR, ISINDEX, TABLE, FORM.

Block elements in HTML 4.0; P, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, UL, OL, PRE, DL, DIV, NOSCRIPT, BLOCKQUOTE, FORM, HR, TABLE, FIELDSET, ADDRESS, (INS, DEL).

Block elements in HTML 4.0 Transitional; P, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, UL, OL, DIR, MENU, PRE, DL, DIV, CENTER, NOSCRIPT, NOFRAMES, BLOCKQUOTE, FORM, ISINDEX, HR, TABLE, FIELDSET, ADDRESS, (INS, DEL).

Parents and children
elements which either contain (parents) or are in the content of (children) other elements, e.g. <P>text<STRONG>text</STRONG>text</P>. P is a parent of STRONG. STRONG is a child of P. If not specified otherwise, children will inherit parent's properties.
Replaced
elements which content is replaced. For example content of the IMG element is replaced with an image, content of the INPUT element is replace with a field.
Floating
elements which follow the flow of a parent - inline elements.

Which set of definitions, HTML attributes or CSS properties, take precedence?
CSS properties take precedence over HTML attributes. If both are specified, HTML attributes will be displayed in browsers without CSS support but won't have any effect in browsers with CSS support.

How do I eliminate the blue border around linked images?
in your CSS, you can specify the border property for linked images:

a img { border: none ; }
However, note that removing the border that indicates an image is a link makes it harder for users to distinguish quickly and easily which images on a web page are clickable.

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