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CSS Interview Questions and Answers

Why call the subtended angle a "pixel", instead of something else (e.g. "subangle")?
In most cases, a CSS pixel will be equal to a device pixel. But, as you point out, the definition of a CSS pixel will sometimes be different. For example, on a laser printer, one CSS pixel can be equal to 3x3 device pixels to avoid printing illegibly small text and images. I don't recall anyone ever proposing another name for it. Subangle? Personally, I think most people would prefer the pragmatic "px" to the non-intuitive "sa".

Why was the decision made to make padding apply outside of the width of a 'box', rather than inside, which would seem to make more sense?
It makes sense in some situations, but not in others. For example, when a child element is set to width: 100%, I don't think it should cover the padding of its parent. The box-sizing property in CSS3 addresses this issue. Ideally, the issue should have been addressed earlier, though.

How to use CSS to separate content and design ?
The idea here is that all sites contain two major parts, the content: all your articles, text and photos and the design: rounded corners, colors and effects. Usually those two are made in different parts of a webpage’s lifetime. The design is determined at the beginning and then you start filling it with content and keep the design fixed.

In CSS you just add the nifty <link>-tag I’ve told you about to the head of your HTML document and you have created a link to your design. In the HTML document you put content only, and that link of yours makes sure it looks right. You can also use the exact same link on many of your pages, giving them all of them the same design. You want to add content? Just write a plain HTML document and think about marking things up like “header” instead of “big blue header” and use CSS to make all headers look the way you want!

Some examples of good and bad coding. What’s wrong with this?
<font size="3">Welcome to my page</font>

Comment: The font-tag is design and design shouldn’t be in the HTML document. All design should be in the CSS-file! Instead do this:

In the HTML:
<h1>Welcome to my page</h1>

In the CSS:
h1 { font-size: 2em; }

One more example:

<b>An error occurred</b>

This looks right doesn’t it? But if you look up what <b> stands for you quickly find bold. But bold is certainly design, so it still doesn’t belong in the HTML document. A better choice is <em> that stands for emphasis or simply “this piece of text is important”. So instead of saying “this text looks like this” you are saying “this text is important” and you let the looks be decided by the CSS. Seems like a minor change, but it illustrates how to select your tags. Use this instead:

In the HTML:
<em>An error occured</em>

In the CSS:
em {
font-weight: bold;
color: Red;

One last example:

<tr><td><a href="">first link</a></td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="">second link</a></td></tr>

Can CSS be used with other than HTML documents?
Yes. CSS can be used with any ny structured document format. e.g. XML, however, the method of linking CSS with other document types has not been decided yet.

Can Style Sheets and HTML stylistic elements be used in the same document?
Yes. Style Sheets will be ignored in browsers without CSS-support and HTML stylistic elements used.

What are pseudo-classes?
Pseudo-classes are fictional element types that do not exist in HTML. In CSS1 there is only one element type which can be classed this way, namely the A element (anchor). By creating three fictional types of the A element individual style can be attached to each class. These three fictional element types are: A as unvisited link, A as active link and A as visited link. Pseudo-classes are created by a colon followed by pseudo-class's name. They can also be combined with normal classes, e.g.:

A:link {background: black; color: white}
A:active {background: black; color: red}
A:visited {background: transparent; color: black}

<A HREF....>This anchor (or rather these anchors) will be displayed as declared above</A>

A.foot:link {background: black; color: white}
A.foft:active {background; black: color: red}
A.foot:visited {background: transparent; color: black}

<A CLASS=foot HREF....>This anchor and all other anchors with CLASS foot will be displayed as declared above</A>

How do I design for backward compatibility using Style Sheets?
Existing HTML style methods (such as <font SIZE> and <b>) may be easily combined with style sheet specification methods. Browsers that do not understand style sheets will use the older HTML formatting methods, and style sheets specifications can control the appearance of these elements in browsers that support CSS1.

As a reader, how can I make my browser recognize my own style sheet?
It is not possible to do this in Netscape yet (as of version 4.0.)
Internet Explorer 3.0 (Win95/NT)
[It is possible to do this at least in Windows95/NT, but no user interface is provided. Unknown how this might be accomplished on other operating systems.]

1. Open the Registry editor (Start..Run..regedit..ENTER)
2. Under the 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\InternetExplorer\Styles' key, Edit..New..String Value
3. The new value should be called 'StyleSheet Pathname'
4. For the value, type in the full directory path of your .css style sheet.

Internet Explorer 4.0 (Win95/NT)

1. Under the View menu, select 'Internet Options'.
2. Under the 'General' tab, choose the 'Accessibility' button.
3. Choose the 'Format documents using my style sheet' check box and 'Browse...' to the location of your .css style sheet.

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