What are Attributes?
Attributes are declarative tags in code that insert
additional metadata into an assembly. There exist two
types of attributes in the .NET Framework: Predefined
attributes such as AssemblyVersion, which already exist
and are accessed through the Runtime Classes; and custom
attributes, which you write yourself by extending the
What are the Types of Assemblies?
Assemblies are of two types:
1. Private Assemblies
2. Shared Assemblies
Private Assemblies: The assembly is intended only for
one application. The files of that assembly must be
placed in the same folder as the application or in a sub
folder. No other application will be able to make a call
to this assembly. The advantage of having a private
assembly is that, it makes naming the assembly very
easy, since the developer need not worry about name
clashes with other assemblies. As long as the assembly
has a unique name within the concerned application,
there won't be any problems.
Shared Assemblies: If the assembly is to be made into a
Shared Assembly, then the naming conventions are very
strict since it has to be unique across the entire
system. The naming conventions should also take care of
newer versions of the component being shipped. These are
accomplished by giving the assembly a Shared Name. Then
the assembly is placed in the global assembly cache,
which is a folder in the file system reserved for shared
What is an Intermediate language?
Assemblies are made up of IL code modules and the
metadata that describes them. Although programs may be
compiled via an IDE or the command line, in fact, they
are simply translated into IL, not machine code. The
actual machine code is not generated until the function
that requires it is called. This is the just-in-time, or
JIT, compilation feature of .NET. JIT compilation
happens at runtime for a variety of reasons, one of the
most ambitious being Microsoft's desire for
cross-platform .NET adoption. If a CLR is built for
another operating system (UNIX or Mac), the same
assemblies will run in addition to the Microsoft
platforms. The hope is that .NET assemblies are
write-once-run-anywhere applications. This is a .NET
feature that works behind-the-scenes, ensuring that
developers are not limited to writing applications for
one single line of products. No one has demonstrated
whether or not this promise will ever truly materialize.
The MSIL Instruction Set Specification is included with
the .NET SDK, along with the IL Assembly Language
Programmers Reference. If a developer wants to write
custom .NET programming languages, these are the
necessary specifications and syntax. The CTS and CLS
define the types and syntaxes that every .NET language
needs to embrace. An application may not expose these
features, but it must consider them when communicating
ASP.NET Authentication Providers and IIS Security
ASP.NET implements authentication using authentication
providers, which are code modules that verify
credentials and implement other security functionality
such as cookie generation. ASP.NET supports the
following three authentication providers:
Forms Authentication: Using this provider causes
unauthenticated requests to be redirected to a specified
HTML form using client side redirection. The user can
then supply logon credentials, and post the form back to
the server. If the application authenticates the request
(using application-specific logic), ASP.NET issues a
cookie that contains the credentials or a key for
reacquiring the client identity. Subsequent requests are
issued with the cookie in the request headers, which
means that subsequent authentications are unnecessary.
Passport Authentication: This is a centralized
authentication service provided by Microsoft that offers
a single logon facility and membership services for
participating sites. ASP.NET, in conjunction with the
Microsoft® Passport software development kit (SDK),
provides similar functionality as Forms Authentication
to Passport users.
Windows Authentication: This provider utilizes the
authentication capabilities of IIS. After IIS completes
its authentication, ASP.NET uses the authenticated
identity's token to authorize access.
To enable a specified authentication provider for an
ASP.NET application, you must create an entry in the
application's configuration file as follows:
// web.config file
What is the difference between ASP and ASP.NET?
ASP is interpreted. ASP.NET Compiled event base
Control events for text button can be handled at client
can handle at server side.
More error handling.
ASP .NET has better language support, a large set of new
controls and XML based components, and better user
ASP .NET provides increased performance by running
ASP .NET code is not fully backward compatible with ASP.
ASP .NET also contains a new set of object oriented
input controls, like programmable list boxes, validation
controls. A new data grid control supports sorting, data
paging, and everything you expect from a dataset
control. The first request for an ASP.NET page on the
server will compile the ASP .NET code and keep a cached
copy in memory. The result of this is greatly increased
ASP .NET is not fully compatible with earlier versions
of ASP, so most of the old ASP code will need some
changes to run under ASP .NET. To overcome this problem,
ASP .NET uses a new file extension ".aspx". This will
make ASP .NET applications able to run side by side with
standard ASP applications on the same server.
Using COM Component in .Net ?
As most of you know that .Net does not encourage the
development of COM components and provides a different
solution to making reusable components through
Assemblies. But, there are a lot of COM components
present which our .Net application might need to use.
Fortunately, .Net provides an extremely simple approach
to achieve this. This is achieved by using ‘Wrapper
Classes’ and ‘Proxy Components’. .Net wraps the COM
component into .Net assembly technically called ‘Runtime
Callable Wrapper’ or RCW. Then u can call and use your
COM component just as a .Net (or C#, if u are using C#)
What is an assembly?
An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET
Framework application. It is a collection of
functionality that is built, versioned, and deployed as
a single implementation unit (as one or more files). All
managed types and resources are marked either as
accessible only within their implementation unit, or as
accessible by code outside that unit. .NET Assembly
contains all the metadata about the modules, types, and
other elements it contains in the form of a manifest.
The CLR loves assemblies because differing programming
languages are just perfect for creating certain kinds of
applications. For example, COBOL stands for Common
Business-Oriented Language because it’s tailor-made for
creating business apps. However, it’s not much good for
creating drafting programs. Regardless of what language
you used to create your modules, they can all work
together within one Portable Executable Assembly.
There’s a hierarchy to the structure of .NET code. That
hierarchy is Assembly - > Module -> Type -> Method."
Assemblies can be static or dynamic. Static assemblies
can include .NET Framework types (interfaces and
classes), as well as resources for the assembly
(bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so on). Static
assemblies are stored on disk in portable executable
(PE) files. You can also use the .NET Framework to
create dynamic assemblies, which are run directly from
memory and are not saved to disk before execution. You
can save dynamic assemblies to disk after they have
What is a Web Service?
A web service is a software component that exposes
itself through the open communication channels of the
Internet. Applications running on remote machines, on
potentially different platforms, can access these
components in a language and platform-independent
manner. A Web Service is a group of functions, packaged
together for use in a common framework throughout a
webFarm Vs webGardens
A web farm is a multi-server scenario. So we may have a
server in each state of US. If the load on one server is
in excess then the other servers step in to bear the
How they bear it is based on various models.
1. RoundRobin. (All servers share load equally)
2. NLB (economical)
3. HLB (expensive but can scale up to 8192 servers)
4. Hybrid (of 2 and 3).
5. CLB (Component load balancer).
A web garden is a multi-processor setup. i.e., a single
server (not like the multi server above).
How to implement webfarms in .Net:
Go to web.config and Here for mode = you have 4 options.
a) Say mode=inproc (non web farm but fast when you have
very few customers).
b) Say mode=StateServer (for webfarm)
c) Say mode=SqlServer (for webfarm)
Whether to use option b or c depends on situation.
StateServer is faster but SqlServer is more reliable and
used for mission critical applications.
How to use webgardens in .Net:
Go to web.config and Change the false to true. You have
one more attribute that is related to webgarden in the
same tag called cpuMask.
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