How can I show HTML examples without them being
interpreted as part of my document?
Within the HTML example, first replace the "&" character
with "&" everywhere it occurs. Then replace the "<"
character with "<" and the ">" character with ">" in
the same way.
Note that it may be appropriate to use the CODE and/or
PRE elements when displaying HTML examples.
How do I get special characters in my HTML?
The special case of the less-than ('<'), greater-than
('>'), and ampersand ('&') characters. In general, the
safest way to write HTML is in US-ASCII (ANSI X3.4, a
7-bit code), expressing characters from the upper half
of the 8-bit code by using HTML entities.
Working with 8-bit characters can also be successful in
many practical situations: Unix and MS-Windows (using
Latin-1), and also Macs (with some reservations).
Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) is intended for English, French,
German, Spanish, Portuguese, and various other western
European languages. (It is inadequate for many languages
of central and eastern Europe and elsewhere, let alone
for languages not written in the Roman alphabet.) On the
Web, these are the only characters reliably supported.
In particular, characters 128 through 159 as used in
MS-Windows are not part of the ISO-8859-1 code set and
will not be displayed as Windows users expect. These
characters include the em dash, en dash, curly quotes,
bullet, and trademark symbol; neither the actual
character (the single byte) nor its �nnn; decimal
equivalent is correct in HTML. Also, ISO-8859-1 does not
include the Euro currency character. (See the last
paragraph of this answer for more about such
On platforms whose own character code isn't ISO-8859-1,
such as MS-DOS and Mac OS, there may be problems: you
have to use text transfer methods that convert between
the platform's own code and ISO-8859-1 (e.g., Fetch for
the Mac), or convert separately (e.g., GNU recode).
Using 7-bit ASCII with entities avoids those problems,
but this FAQ is too small to cover other possibilities
If you run a web server (httpd) on a platform whose own
character code isn't ISO-8859-1, such as a Mac or an IBM
mainframe, then it's the job of the server to convert
text documents into ISO-8859-1 code when sending them to
If you want to use characters not in ISO-8859-1, you
must use HTML 4 or XHTML rather than HTML 3.2, choose an
appropriate alternative character set (and for certain
character sets, choose the encoding system too), and use
one method or other of specifying this.
Should I put quotes around attribute values?
It is never wrong to quote attribute values, and many
people recommend quoting all attribute values even when
the quotation marks are technically optional. XHTML 1.0
requires all attribute values to be quoted. Like
previous HTML specifications, HTML 4 allows attribute
values to remain unquoted in many circumstances (e.g.,
when the value contains only letters and digits).
Be careful when your attribute value includes double
quotes, for instance when you want ALT text like "the
"King of Comedy" takes a bow" for an image. Humans can
parse that to know where the quoted material ends, but
browsers can't. You have to code the attribute value
specially so that the first interior quote doesn't
terminate the value prematurely. There are two main
* Escape any quotes inside the value with " so you
don't terminate the value prematurely: ALT="the
"King of Comedy" takes a bow".
* Use single quotes to enclose the attribute value:
ALT='the "King of Comedy" takes a bow'.
Both these methods are correct according to the
specification and are supported by current browsers, but
both were poorly supported in some earlier browsers. The
only truly safe advice is to rewrite the text so that
the attribute value need not contain quotes, or to
change the interior double quotes to single quotes, like
this: ALT="the 'King of Comedy' takes a bow".
Posting Copy and Paste HTML
For those wanting to post direct Copy and Paste HTML on
screen without the use of spaces or *s etc. and the need
to explain those substitutions: Use < to substitute
for each opening tag < in each tagged set of HTML.
Example, typing the following: <a href="http://www.yourname.com"><img
Will show up on screen as: <a href="http://www.yourname.com"><img
HTML for Lists
1. Bulleted Lists: <ul> begins a bulleted, indented
list. Each item in the list is then prefaced with the <li>
tag. It is not necessary to insert a break at the end of
each line -- the <li> tag automatically creates a new
* with <li type=disc>
* with <li type=square>
* with <li type=circle>
2. Numbered Lists: <ol> begins a numbered, indented
list. Each item in the list is then prefaced with the <li>
tag. You need to close the list with the </ol> tag.
Note: You can expand the <ol> to specify the TYPE of
<ol> 1 (decimal numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...)
<ol type="a"> a (lowercase alphabetic: a, b, c, d, e,
<ol type="A"> A (uppercase alphabetic: A, B, C, D, E,
<ol type="i"> i (lowercase Roman numerals: i, ii, iii,
iv, v, ...)
<ol type="I"> I (uppercase Roman numerals: I, II, III,
IV, V, ...)
Are there any problems with using tables for layout?
On current browsers, the entire table must be downloaded
and the dimensions of everything in the table must to be
known before the table can be rendered. That can delay
the rendering of your content, especially if your table
contains images without HEIGHT or WIDTH attributes.
If any of your table's content is too wide for the
available display area, then the table stretches to
accomodate the oversized content. The rest of the
content then adjusts to fit the oversized table rather
than fitting the available display area. This can force
your readers to scroll horizontally to read your
content, or can cause printed versions to be cropped.
For readers whose displays are narrower than the author
anticipated, fixed-width tables cause the same problems
as other oversized tables. For readers whose displays
are wider than the author anticipated, fixed-width
tables cause extremely wide margins, wasting much of the
display area. For readers who need larger fonts,
fixed-width tables can cause the content to be displayed
in short choppy lines of only a few words each.
Many browsers are especially sensitive to invalid syntax
when tables are involved. Correct syntax is especially
critical. Even with correct syntax, nested tables may
not display correctly in older versions of Netscape
Some browsers ignore tables, or can be configured to
ignore tables. These browsers will ignore any layout
you've created with tables. Also, search engines ignore
tables. Some search engines use the text at the
beginning of a document to summarize it when it appears
in search results, and some index only the first n bytes
of a document. When tables are used for layout, the
beginning of a document often contains many navigation
links that appear before than actual content.
Many versions of Navigator have problems linking to
named anchors when they are inside a table that uses the
ALIGN attribute. These browsers seem to associate the
named anchor with the top of the table, rather than with
the content of the anchor. You can avoid this problem by
not using the ALIGN attribute on your tables.
If you use tables for layout, you can still minimize the
related problems with careful markup. Avoid placing wide
images, PRE elements with long lines, long URLs, or
other wide content inside tables. Rather than a single
full-page layout table, use several independent tables.
For example, you could use a table to lay out a
navigation bar at the top/bottom of the page, and leave
the main content completely outside any layout tables.
How do I eliminate the blue border around linked images?
In your HTML, you can specify the BORDER attribute for
<a href=...><img src=... alt=... border="0"></a>
However, note that removing the border that indicates an
image is a link makes it harder for users to distinguish
quickly and easily which images on a web page are
How do I eliminate the space around/between my images?
If your images are inside a table, be sure to set the
BORDER, CELLSPACING, and CELLPADDING attributes to 0.
Extra space between images is often created by
whitespace around the <IMG> tag in the markup. It is
safe to use newlines inside a tag (between attributes),
but not between two tags. For example, replace this:
<img src=... alt=...>
<img src=... alt=...>
<td ...><img src=... alt=...><img src=... alt=...></td>
According to the latest specifications, the two should
be equivalent. However, common browsers do not comply
with the specifications in this situation.
Finally, extra space between images can appear in
documents that trigger the "standards" rendering mode of
Gecko-based browsers like Mozilla and Firefox.
Page Numbers :