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Java Interview Questions and Answers


What is the difference between final, finally and finalize?
final is used for making a class no-subclassable, and making a member variable as a constant which cannot be modified. finally is usually used to release all the resources utilized inside the try block. All the resources present in the finalize method will be garbage collected whenever GC is called. Though finally and finalize seem to be for a similar task there is an interesting tweak here, usually I prefer finally than finalize unless it is unavoidable. This is because the code in finally block is guaranteed of execution irrespective of occurrence of exception, while execution of finalize is not guarenteed.finalize method is called by the garbage collector on an object when the garbage collector determines that there are no more references to the object. Presumably the garbage collector will, like its civil servant namesake, visit the heap on a regular basis to clean up resources that are no longer in use. Garbage collection exists to prevent programmers from calling delete. This is a wonderful feature. For example, if you can't call delete, then you can't accidentally call delete twice on the same object. However, removing delete from the language is not the same thing as automatically cleaning up. To add to it, Garbage collection might not ever run. If garbage collection runs at all, and an object is no longer referenced, then that object's finalize will run. Also, across multiple objects, finalize order is not predictable. The correct approach to resource cleanup in Java language programs does not rely on finalize. Instead, you simply write explicit close methods for objects that wrap native resources. If you take this approach, you must document that the close method exists and when it should be called. Callers of the object must then remember to call close when they are finished with a resource.

What's the difference between the methods sleep() and wait()
The code sleep(1000); puts thread aside for exactly one second. The code wait(1000), causes a wait of up to one second. A thread could stop waiting earlier if it receives the notify() or notifyAll() call. The method wait() is defined in the class Object and the method sleep() is defined in the class Thread.

The following statement prints true or false, why?
byte[] a = { 1, 2, 3 };,
byte[] b = (byte[]) a.clone();
System.out.println(a == b);
The false will be printed out. Because the two arrays have distinctive memory addresses. Starting in Java 1.2, we can use java.util.Arrays.equals(a, b) to compare whether two arrays have the same contents.

Why do we need to use getSystemResource() and getSystemResources() method to load resources?
Because we want to look for resources strictly from the system classpath, These methods use the system ClassLoader to locate resources, which gives you stricter control of the resources used by the application.

ArithmeticException?
The ArithmeticException is thrown when integer is divided by zero or taking the remainder of a number by zero. It is never thrown in floating-point operations.

What is a transient variable?
A transient variable is a variable that may not be serialized.

Which containers use a border Layout as their default layout?
The window, Frame and Dialog classes use a border layout as their default layout.

Why do threads block on I/O?
Threads block on I/O (that is enters the waiting state) so that other threads may execute while the I/O Operation is performed.

What is the output from System.out.println("Hello"+null);?
Hellonull

What is synchronization and why is it important?
With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability to control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object while another thread is in the process of using or updating that object's value. This often leads to significant errors.

Can a lock be acquired on a class?
Yes, a lock can be acquired on a class. This lock is acquired on the class's Class object.

What's new with the stop(), suspend() and resume() methods in JDK 1.2?
The stop(), suspend() and resume() methods have been deprecated in JDK 1.2.

Is null a keyword?
The null value is not a keyword.

What is the preferred size of a component?
The preferred size of a component is the minimum component size that will allow the component to display normally.

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