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Java Interview Questions and Answers

Explain garbage collection?
Garbage collection is one of the most important feature of Java. Garbage collection is also called automatic memory management as JVM automatically removes the unused variables/objects (value is null) from the memory. User program cann't directly free the object from memory, instead it is the job of the garbage collector to automatically free the objects that are no longer referenced by a program. Every class inherits finalize() method from java.lang.Object, the finalize() method is called by garbage collector when it determines no more references to the object exists. In Java, it is good idea to explicitly assign null into a variable when no more in use. I Java on calling System.gc() and Runtime.gc(), JVM tries to recycle the unused objects, but there is no guarantee when all the objects will garbage collected.

Describe the principles of OOPS.
There are three main principals of oops which are called Polymorphism, Inheritance and Encapsulation.

Explain the Encapsulation principle.
Encapsulation is a process of binding or wrapping the data and the codes that operates on the data into a single entity. This keeps the data safe from outside interface and misuse. One way to think about encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by other code defined outside the wrapper.

Explain the Inheritance principle.
Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object.

Explain the Polymorphism principle.
The meaning of Polymorphism is something like one name many forms. Polymorphism enables one entity to be used as as general category for different types of actions. The specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. The concept of polymorphism can be explained as "one interface, multiple methods".

Explain the different forms of Polymorphism.
From a practical programming viewpoint, polymorphism exists in three distinct forms in Java:
Method overloading
Method overriding through inheritance
Method overriding through the Java interface

What are Access Specifiers available in Java?
ccess specifiers are keywords that determines the type of access to the member of a class. These are:

Describe the wrapper classes in Java.
Wrapper class is wrapper around a primitive data type. An instance of a wrapper class contains, or wraps, a primitive value of the corresponding type.

Following table lists the primitive types and the corresponding wrapper classes:

Primitive Wrapper
boolean java.lang.Boolean
byte java.lang.Byte
char java.lang.Character
double java.lang.Double
float java.lang.Float
int java.lang.Integer
long java.lang.Long
short java.lang.Short
void java.lang.Void

Question: Read the following program:
public class test {
public static void main(String [] args) {
int x = 3;
int y = 1;
if (x = y)
System.out.println("Not equal");

What is the result?
A. The output is “Equal”
B. The output in “Not Equal”
C. An error at " if (x = y)" causes compilation to fall.
D. The program executes but no output is show on console.

Answer: C

Use the Externalizable interface when you need complete control over your Bean's serialization (for example, when writing and reading a specific file format).
No. Earlier order is maintained.

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