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Networking Interview Questions and Answers

What is Structured Query Language (SQL)?
SQL is a powerful set-oriented language which was developed by IBM research for the databases that adhere to the relational model. It consists of a short list of powerful, yet highly flexible, commands that can be used to manipulate information collected in tables. Through SQL, we can manipulate and control sets of records at a time.

What is Remote Procedure Call (RPC)?
RPC hides the intricacies of the network by using the ordinary procedure call mechanism familiar to every programmer. A client process calls a function on a remote server and suspends itself until it gets back the results. Parameters are passed like in any ordinary procedure. The RPC, like an ordinary procedure, is synchronous. The process that issues the call waits until it gets the results.
Under the covers, the RPC run-time software collects values for the parameters, forms a message, and sends it to the remote server. The server receives the request, unpack the parameters, calls the procedures, and sends the reply back to the client. It is a telephone-like metaphor.

What are the main components of Transaction-based Systems?
Resource Manager
Transaction Manager and
Application Program.

What are the three types of SQL database server architecture?
Process-per-client Architecture. (Example: Oracle 6, Informix )
Multithreaded Architecture. (Example: Sybase, SQL server)
Hybrid Architecture

What are the Classification of clients?
Non-GUI clients - Two types are:-
Non-GUI clients that do not need multi-tasking
(Example: Automatic Teller Machines (ATM), Cell phone)
Non-GUI clients that need multi-tasking
(Example: ROBOTs)

GUI clients
OOUI clients

What are called Non-GUI clients, GUI Clients and OOUI Clients?
Non-GUI Client: These are applications, generate server requests with a minimal amount of human interaction.
GUI Clients: These are applications, where occasional requests to the server result from a human interacting with a GUI
(Example: Windows 3.x, NT 3.5)
OOUI clients : These are applications, which are highly-iconic, object-oriented user interface that provides seamless access to information in very visual formats.
(Example: MAC OS, Windows 95, NT 4.0)

What is Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)?
MOM allows general purpose messages to be exchanged in a Client/Server system using message queues. Applications communicate over networks by simply putting messages in the queues and getting messages from queues. It typically provides a very simple high level APIs to its services.
MOM's messaging and queuing allow clients and servers to communicate across a network without being linked by a private, dedicated, logical connection. The clients and server can run at different times. It is a post-office like metaphor.

What is meant by Middleware?
Middleware is a distributed software needed to support interaction between clients and servers. In short, it is the software that is in the middle of the Client/Server systems and it acts as a bridge between the clients and servers. It starts with the API set on the client side that is used to invoke a service and it covers the transmission of the request over the network and the resulting response.
It neither includes the software that provides the actual service - that is in the servers domain nor the user interface or the application login - that's in clients domain.

What are the functions of the typical server program?
It waits for client-initiated requests. Executes many requests at the same time. Takes care of VIP clients first. Initiates and runs background task activity. Keeps running. Grown bigger and faster.

What is meant by Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)?
It treats all processors as equal. Any processor can do the work of any other processor. Applications are divided into threads that can run concurrently on any available processor. Any processor in the pool can run the OS kernel and execute user-written threads.

What are General Middleware?
It includes the communication stacks, distributed directories, authentication services, network time, RPC, Queuing services along with the network OS extensions such as the distributed file and print services. 

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