What are major types of networks and
Peer-to-peer network, computers can act as both servers sharing
resources and as clients using the resources.
Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources
and rely on server computers to provide security and network
What is SAP?
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate
with the other layers of network protocol stack.
What is multicast routing?
Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing
algorithm is called multicast routing.
What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols?
Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large
networks. Non-Routable protocols are designed to work on small, local
networks and cannot be used with a router.
What is REX?
Request to Exit (REX) - A signal that informs the controller that
someone has requested to exit from a secure area.
What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices?
Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only
at physical layer. It receives the signal in the network before it
becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the
refreshed copy back in to the link.
These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same
type. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain
logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and
thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment
containing the intended recipient and control congestion.
They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of
different type). They operate in the physical, data link and network
layers. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the
several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission.
Gateways: They relay packets among networks that have different
protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They accept a packet formatted
for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another
protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the
What is redirector?
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and
translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation
What is packet filter?
Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra
functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing
packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded
normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.
What is logical link control?
One of two sub layers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as
defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sub layer is responsible for
maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across
the physical network connection.
What is traffic shaping?
One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If
hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be
less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is
forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is
called traffic shaping.
What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI?
NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent
to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking
hardware from applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol
designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.
Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model?
It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design.
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