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Oracle Interview Questions and Answers



What is a Check Box?
A Check Box is a two state control that indicates whether a certain condition or value is on or off, true or false. The display state of a check box is always either "checked" or "unchecked".

What is a canvas-view?
A canvas-view is the background object on which you layout the interface items (text-items, check boxes, radio groups, and so on.) and boilerplate objects that operators see and interact with as they run your form. At run-time, operators can see only those items that have been assigned to a specific canvas. Each canvas, in term, must be displayed in a specific window.

Explain the following file extension related to library?
.pll,.lib,.pld
The library pll files is a portable design file comparable to an fmb form file
The library lib file is a plat form specific, generated library file comparable to a fmx form file
The pld file is Txt format file and can be used for source controlling your library files Parameter

Explain the usage of WHERE CURRENT OF clause in cursors ?
WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE,DELETE statement refers to the latest row fetched from a cursor. Database Triggers

Name the tables where characteristics of Package, procedure and functions are stored ?
User_objects, User_Source and User_error.

Explain the two type of Cursors ?
There are two types of cursors, Implicit Cursor and Explicit Cursor. PL/SQL uses Implicit Cursors for queries. User defined cursors are called Explicit Cursors. They can be declared and used.

What are two parts of package ?
The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION & PACKAGE BODY. Package Specification contains declarations that are global to the packages and local to the schema. Package Body contains actual procedures and local declaration of the procedures and cursor declarations.

What are two virtual tables available during database trigger execution ?
The table columns are referred as OLD.column_name and NEW.column_name.
For triggers related to INSERT only NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD.column_name NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to DELETE only OLD.column_name values only available.

What is Fine Grained Auditing? (for DBA)
Fine Grained Auditing (DBMS_FGA) allows auditing records to be generated when certain rows are selected from a table. A list of defined policies can be obtained from DBA_AUDIT_POLICIES. Audit records are stored in DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL. Look at this example:
o Add policy on table with autiting condition...
execute dbms_fga.add_policy('HR', 'EMP', 'policy1', 'deptno > 10');
o Must ANALYZE, this feature works with CBO (Cost Based Optimizer)
analyze table EMP compute statistics;
select * from EMP where c1 = 11; -- Will trigger auditing
select * from EMP where c1 = 09; -- No auditing
o Now we can see the statments that triggered the auditing condition...
select sqltext from sys.fga_log$;
delete from sys.fga_log$;

What is a package ? What are the advantages of packages ? What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ?
The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error. To get an error message of a specific oracle error. e.g. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (exception name, oracle error number)

What is a Virtual Private Database? (for DBA)
Oracle 8i introduced the notion of a Virtual Private Database (VPD). A VPD offers Fine-Grained Access Control (FGAC) for secure separation of data. This ensures that users only have access to data that pertains to them. Using this option, one could even store multiple companies' data within the same schema, without them knowing about it. VPD configuration is done via the DBMS_RLS (Row Level Security) package. Select from SYS.V$VPD_POLICY to see existing VPD configuration.

What is Raise_application_error ?
Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue an user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger.

What is Oracle Label Security? (for DBA)
Oracle Label Security (formerly called Trusted Oracle MLS RDBMS) uses the VPD (Virtual Private Database) feature of Oracle8i to implement row level security. Access to rows are restricted according to a user's security sensitivity tag or label. Oracle Label Security is configured, controlled and managed from the Policy Manager, an Enterprise Manager-based GUI utility.

Give the structure of the procedure ?
PROCEDURE name (parameter list.....)
is
local variable declarations
BEGIN
Executable statements.
Exception.
exception handlers
end;

What is OEM (Oracle Enterprise Manager)? (for DBA)
OEM is a set of systems management tools provided by Oracle Corporation for managing the Oracle environment. It provides tools to monitor the Oracle environment and automate tasks (both one-time and repetitive in nature) to take database administration a step closer to "Lights Out" management.

Question What is PL/SQL ?
PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both interactive SQL and procedural programming language constructs such as iteration, conditional branching.

What are the components of OEM? (for DBA)
Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) has the following components:
. Management Server (OMS): Middle tier server that handles communication with the intelligent agents. The OEM Console connects to the management server to monitor and configure the Oracle enterprise.
. Console: This is a graphical interface from where one can schedule jobs, events, and monitor the database. The console can be opened from a Windows workstation, Unix XTerm (oemapp command) or Web browser session (oem_webstage).
. Intelligent Agent (OIA): The OIA runs on the target database and takes care of the execution of jobs and events scheduled through the Console.

What happens if a procedure that updates a column of table X is called in a database trigger of the same table ?
Mutation of table occurs.

Is it possible to use Transaction control Statements such a ROLLBACK or COMMIT in Database Trigger ? Why ?
It is not possible. As triggers are defined for each table, if you use COMMIT of ROLLBACK in a trigger, it affects logical transaction processing.

How many types of database triggers can be specified on a table ? What are they ?
Insert Update Delete
Before Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
Before Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified, then the trigger for each Row affected by the statement.
If WHEN clause is specified, the trigger fires according to the returned Boolean value.

What are the modes of parameters that can be passed to a procedure ?
IN,OUT,IN-OUT parameters.

Where the Pre_defined_exceptions are stored ?
In the standard package.
Procedures, Functions & Packages ;

Write the order of precedence for validation of a column in a table ?
I. done using Database triggers.
ii. done using Integarity Constraints.?

I & ii.

Give the structure of the function ?
FUNCTION name (argument list .....) Return datatype is
local variable declarations
Begin
executable statements
Exception
execution handlers
End;

Explain how procedures and functions are called in a PL/SQL block ?
Function is called as part of an expression.
sal := calculate_sal ('a822');
procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement
calculate_bonus ('A822');

What are advantages fo Stored Procedures?
Extensibility,Modularity, Reusability, Maintainability and one time compilation.

What is an Exception ? What are types of Exception ?
Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block. The types are Predefined and user defined. Some of Predefined exceptions are.
CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN
DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX
NO_DATA_FOUND
TOO_MANY_ROWS
INVALID_CURSOR
INVALID_NUMBER
LOGON_DENIED
NOT_LOGGED_ON
PROGRAM-ERROR
STORAGE_ERROR
TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE
VALUE_ERROR
ZERO_DIVIDE
OTHERS.

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