What is maximum size of a database in
If the operating system or filesystem places a limit on the number of
files in a directory, MySQL is bound by that constraint. The efficiency
of the operating system in handling large numbers of files in a
directory can place a practical limit on the number of tables in a
database. If the time required to open a file in the directory increases
significantly as the number of files increases, database performance can
be adversely affected.
The amount of available disk space limits the number of tables.
MySQL 3.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. With the MyISAM
storage engine in MySQL 3.23, the maximum table size was increased to
65536 terabytes (2567 – 1 bytes). With this larger allowed table size,
the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases is usually
determined by operating system constraints on file sizes, not by MySQL
The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a tablespace
that can be created from several files. This allows a table to exceed
the maximum individual file size. The tablespace can include raw disk
partitions, which allows extremely large tables. The maximum tablespace
size is 64TB.
The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size
limits. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive.
For the most up-to-date information, be sure to check the documentation
specific to your operating system.
Operating System File-size Limit
Linux 2.2-Intel 32-bit 2GB (LFS: 4GB)
Linux 2.4+ (using ext3 filesystem) 4TB
Solaris 9/10 16TB
NetWare w/NSS filesystem 8TB
Win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 2GB/4GB
Win32 w/ NTFS 2TB (possibly larger)
MacOS X w/ HFS+ 2TB
Explain normalization concept?
The normalization process involves getting our data to conform to three
progressive normal forms, and a higher level of normalization cannot be
achieved until the previous levels have been achieved (there are
actually five normal forms, but the last two are mainly academic and
will not be discussed).
First Normal Form
The First Normal Form (or 1NF) involves removal of redundant data from
horizontal rows. We want to ensure that there is no duplication of data
in a given row, and that every column stores the least amount of
information possible (making the field atomic).
Second Normal Form
Where the First Normal Form deals with redundancy of data across a
horizontal row, Second Normal Form (or 2NF) deals with redundancy of
data in vertical columns. As stated earlier, the normal forms are
progressive, so to achieve Second Normal Form, your tables must already
be in First Normal Form.
Third Normal Form
I have a confession to make; I do not often use Third Normal Form. In
Third Normal Form we are looking for data in our tables that is not
fully dependant on the primary key, but dependant on another value in
What’s the difference between accessing a class method via -> and via
:: is allowed to access methods that can perform static operations, i.e.
those, which do not require object initialization.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of CASCADE STYLE SHEETS?
External Style Sheets
Can control styles for multiple documents at once Classes can be created
for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents Selector and
grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts
An extra download is required to import style information for each
document The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external
style sheet is loaded Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of
Embedded Style Sheets
Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document
Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex
contexts No additional downloads necessary to receive style information
This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once
Useful for small quantities of style definitions Can override other
style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need
to be listed in conjunction with other style methods
Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of
SGML/HTML) Can not control styles for multiple documents at once Author
can not create or control classes of elements to control multiple
element types within the document Selector grouping methods can not be
used to create complex element addressing scenarios
What type of inheritance that php supports?
In PHP an extended class is always dependent on a single base class,
that is, multiple inheritance is not supported. Classes are extended
using the keyword 'extends'.
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