What is Action Class?
The Action Class is part of the Model and is a wrapper around the
business logic. The purpose of Action Class is to translate the
HttpServletRequest to the business logic. To use the Action, we need to
Subclass and overwrite the execute() method. In the Action Class all the
database/business processing are done. It is advisable to perform all
the database related stuffs in the Action Class. The ActionServlet (commad)
passes the parameterized class to Action Form using the execute()
method. The return type of the execute method is ActionForward which is
used by the Struts Framework to forward the request to the file as per
the value of the returned ActionForward object.
Write code of any Action Class?
Here is the code of Action Class that returns the ActionForward object.
public class TestAction extends Action
public ActionForward execute(
HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception
What is ActionForm?
An ActionForm is a JavaBean that extends
org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm. ActionForm maintains the session
state for web application and the ActionForm object is automatically
populated on the server side with data entered from a form on the client
What is Struts Validator Framework?
Struts Framework provides the functionality to validate the form data.
It can be use to validate the data on the users browser as well as on
the server side. Struts Framework emits the java scripts and it can be
used validate the form data on the client browser. Server side
validation of form can be accomplished by sub classing your From Bean
with DynaValidatorForm class. The Validator framework was developed by
David Winterfeldt as third-party add-on to Struts. Now the Validator
framework is a part of Jakarta Commons project and it can be used with
or without Struts. The Validator framework comes integrated with the
Struts Framework and can be used without doing any extra settings.
Give the Details of XML files used in Validator Framework?
The Validator Framework uses two XML configuration files
validator-rules.xml and validation.xml. The validator-rules.xml defines
the standard validation routines, these are reusable and used in
validation.xml. to define the form specific validations. The
validation.xml defines the validations applied to a form bean. How you
will display validation fail errors on jsp page? - The following tag
displays all the errors: < html:errors/ >
Why do we need Struts?
Java technologies give developers a serious boost when creating and
maintaining applications to meet the demands of today's public Web sites
and enterprise intranets. Struts combines Java Servlets, Java
ServerPages, custom tags, and message resources into a unified
framework. The end result is a cooperative, synergistic platform,
suitable for development teams, independent developers, and everyone in
How does Struts work?
Java Servlets are designed to handle requests made by Web browsers. Java
ServerPages are designed to create dynamic Web pages that can turn
billboard sites into live applications. Struts uses a special Servlet as
a switchboard to route requests from Web browsers to the appropriate
ServerPage. This makes Web applications much easier to design, create,
Is Struts compatible with other Java technologies?
Yes. Struts is committed to supporting industry standards. Struts acts
as an integrator of Java technologies so that they can be used in the
Who wrote Struts?
There are several active committers to the Struts project, working
cooperatively from around the globe. Dozens of individual developers and
committers contributed to the Struts 1.x codebase. All interested Java
developers are invited to contribute to the project. Struts is a Apache
Software Foundation project, with the mission to "provide secure,
enterprise-grade server solutions based on the Java Platform that are
developed in an open and cooperative fashion".
Struts was created by Craig R. McClanahan and donated to The Apache
Software Foundation in May 2000. Craig was the primary developer of both
Struts 1.x and Tomcat 4. Tomcat 4 was the basis for the official
reference implementation for a servlet 2.3 and JSP 1.2 container.
Craig's current focus is as architect of the Sun Java Studio Creator
(formerly Project Rave). Craig also serves as the Specification Lead for
JavaServer Faces (JSR-127), and is the Web Layer Architect for the Java2
Enterprise Edition (J2EE) platform as a whole.