Linking words help you to connect ideas and
sentences, so that people can follow your ideas.
The most common way of giving examples is by using
refers to something by
"There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."
Ideas are often linked by . In
a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before
"We discussed training, education and the budget."
is used to add an extra idea
or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing."
You can use with
to give emphasis.
"We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by
We don't usually start a sentence with . If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means
also, you can use , or
can be used at the
beginning or the middle of a sentence.
"As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition."
"We are interested in costs as well as the competition."
"They were concerned too."
"I, too, was concerned."
are often used to mean
"Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
"Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
add extra information
to the point you are making.
"Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they
tell us about the competition."
either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means
We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a
summary of what we have said or written.
are useful when you
want to refer to one of two points.
"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is
studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term."
(or ) are useful ways to
It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try
and so on.
is a good way of
starting a list.
"The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N
Peters, C Jones and A Owen."
Giving a reason
must be followed by a
"Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%."
"Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."
If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and
object), you must follow the words with .
"Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone
up by 1%25."
"Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has
been unable to fulfill all its orders."
is followed by a noun.
"Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."
can be used at the
beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was
raining, the match was postponed."
"We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be
"Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
"As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
Giving a result
are all used in a
"The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result,
they are taking on extra staff."
is more informal.
is more informal than
. It is not normally used
at the beginning of a sentence.
"He works hard, but he doesn't earn much."
"He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."
introduce an idea of
contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence.
"Although it was cold, she went out in shorts."
"In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."
are used in the same
way as and
. They must be followed
by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must
"Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra
"The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the
fact that it was cold.)
"The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand
are used to show how two
things are different from each other.
"While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown."
"Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone
"Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."
"In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they
often don't have enough time."
Like and As